NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge


Question:-1. Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India?

Answer:- According to statistics from the year 2000, a household of five earning less than Rs. 1,640 a month is considered poor. For the urban area, this value is Rs. 2,270 per month. In rural areas, the expected calorie consumption is 2400 calories per person, while in urban areas, it is 2100 calories per person. A person living in poverty is defined as someone who consumes less than this amount.



Question:-2. Do you think that present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate?

Answer:- I believe that the current poverty estimate methodology is ineffective since each country employs an imaginary line that is acceptable for its current level of development and recognised minimum social norms. In the United States, for example, a person without a car may be deemed impoverished. Having a car is still regarded a luxury in India.



Question:-3. Describe poverty trends in India since 1973?

Answer:- According to the data, India’s poverty rate has decreased significantly from 45 percent in 1993-94 to 37.2 percent in 2004-05. In 2011-12, the percentage fell even lower, at 22%. Although the number of poor people decreased from 1973 to 1993, the number of poor people decreased significantly (approximately 407 million) in 2004-05 and by another 270 million in 2011-12, with an average yearly loss of 2.2 percent. It should also be mentioned that poverty rates in rural areas have always been greater than in metropolitan ones. If current trends continue, the number of people living in poverty could drop to fewer than 20% in the next several years.



Question:-4. Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India?

Answer:- The following are the main causes of poverty in the country:


  1. Under British colonial administration, there was a poor degree of economic development. The colonial government’s actions damaged traditional handicrafts and stifled the growth of industry like textiles.
  2. The growth of the Green Revolution produced a large number of job opportunities for the country’s citizens, but they were insufficient in contrast to the number of individuals looking for work.
  3. Poverty in India is exacerbated by the unequal distribution of land and resources.
  4. Poor people end up spending a lot of money to fulfil social duties and religious events, resulting in poverty.
  5. Inequality in people’s income is also a key cause of poverty.



Question:-5. Identify the social and economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India.

Answer:- The social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India are:

  • Scheduled Caste Communities
  • Scheduled Tribe Communities

The economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India are:

  • Rural Agricultural Labour Communities
  • Urban Casual Labour Communities



Question:-6. Give an account of interstate disparities of poverty in India.

Answer:- Various states in India have different levels of poverty. The pace of poverty reduction varies from state to state, resulting in poverty differences between states. Orissa, Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh are India’s poorest states, with 47, 42, and 37 percent of the population living in poverty, respectively. In terms of poverty, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh are India’s three wealthier states. There are a number of reasons that contribute to India’s poverty differences between states.



Question:-7. Describe global poverty trends.

Answer:- In developing countries, the proportion of people living on less than $1.90 per day has decreased from 35% in 1990 to 10.68% in 2013. The worldwide poverty rate has dropped significantly. However, there are significant regional variances in the decline. Poverty has decreased significantly in China and Southeast Asian countries as a result of rapid economic expansion and enormous investments in human resource development.


The reduction has been equally rapid in South Asian countries (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Bhutan). Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa has decreased from 54 percent in 1990 to 41% in 2013. It has also revived in certain former socialist nations, such as Russia, where it was previously non-existent. Poverty has also decreased in Latin America, from 16 percent in 1990 to 5.4 percent in 2013.



Question:-8. Describe current government strategy of poverty alleviation?

Answer:- The use of income or consumption levels to measure poverty is a popular strategy. If a person’s income or consumption falls below a certain “minimum level” required to meet basic necessities, he or she is termed poor.



Question:-9. Answer the following questions briefly

(i) What do you understand by human poverty?

Answer:- Human poverty is a concept that refers to the fact that poverty in India is not limited to people’s economic circumstances, but also extends to other areas such as lack of education, health-care neglect, prejudice, and inequity. The authorities’ primary goal should not be to eradicate poverty from the country; rather, it should be to eradicate human poverty.



 (ii) Who are the poorest of the poor?

Answer:- The poorest of the poor are women, female newborns, and the elderly. This is because these people suffer the most in a poor household and are deprived of the most basic necessities.



 (iii) What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005?

Answer:- The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act of 2005 has the following main features:


  1. Every rural household is guaranteed 100 days of employment per year under the Act.
  2. Women are assigned to one-third of the jobs.
  3. It also sought for long-term development to combat drought, deforestation, and soil erosion.
  4. SCs, STs, and women account for 23%, 17%, and 53% of the population, respectively.
  5. The average wage has risen from 65 in 2006-07 to 132 in 2013-14 as a result of this.
  6. 20 crore person-days of employment were offered to 4.78 crore households through the scheme.