Topics in Chapter 6 Population Class 9th Geography Study Material and Notes
- a brief introduction
Size and Distribution
India’s Population Density Distribution
- Growth In population
Population Growth Processes
- Sex Ratio
- Literacy rates
- Occupational Structure
- Adolescent Population
- NPP 2000
- Relation between NPP 2000 and Adolescent Population
- Resources are created and used by people. They are also regarded as resources of varying quality.
- The population (the total number of people living in a specific location, such as a city, state, or country) is the most important aspect of social studies. It serves as a point of reference for all other elements to be measured against.
- Because humans are both producers and consumers of resources, knowledge regarding a country’s population, such as its size and distribution, is crucial.
- A census is a periodic official measurement of the population. The first census in India was conducted in 1872.
- The Indian census supplies us with information on our country’s population. The census data provides answers to the following three primary population questions:
- Size and distribution of the population
- Processes of population change and population increase
- a population’s characteristics or features
Dimensions and spread
- India’s population was 1210.6 million in March 2011, accounting for 17.5 percent of the world’s population.
- According to the data, Uttar Pradesh is India’s most populated state, with a population of 199 million people, accounting for 16% of the country’s overall population.
- The population of Sikkim is 0.6 million (6 lakhs), while Lakshadweep has a population of 64,429 thousand.
- Nearly half of India’s population lives in the five states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh (49 percent ).
India’s Population Density Distribution
- The number of people per unit area is used to calculate population density.
- India’s population density in 2011 was 382 people per square kilometre, making it one of the world’s most densely inhabited countries.
- Population densities range from 1102 people per square kilometre in Bihar to merely 17 people per square kilometre in Arunachal Pradesh.
- Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic circumstances are to blame for some states’ sparse (thinly scattered) populations, such as Meghalaya and Orissa.
- The population of Assam and most of the Peninsular states has been influenced by the terrain’s hilly, dissected, and rocky nature, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soils.
- Because of the flat plains, fertile soils, and copious rainfall, the Northern Plains and Kerala in the south have high to very high population densities.
Growth of the Population
- Population growth refers to the increase or decrease in the number of people living in a country or territory over a specified time period, such as the last ten years.
- There are two ways to express the change.
- if we talk about absolute numbers
- in terms of annual percentage change
- To get the absolute number, subtract the earlier population (for example, 1991) from the later population (e.g. that of 2011). The absolute growth is what it’s called.
- The rate of population increase is measured in percent per year; for example, a rate of rise of 2% per year means that for every 100 people in the base population, two people were added in that year. The yearly growth rate is the term for this.
- From 361 million in 1951 to 1210.6 million in 2011, India’s population has gradually increased.
- Since 1981, however, the rate of growth has been steadily decreasing as birth rates have decreased. However, because India has such a vast population, a low annual rate applied to such a large population results in a large absolute growth.
- At this rate of growth, India would overtake China as the world’s most populous country in 2045.
Population Change/Growth Processes
- The three major processes of population change are birth rates, death rates, and migration.
- The annual birth rate is the number of live births per thousand people. Birth rates in India have traditionally been greater than death rates.
- The death rate is the number of people who die per thousand in a given year. Death rates are rapidly declining in India, which is the primary reason for the country’s population growth.
- Until 1980, high birth rates and lowering death rates resulted in a faster pace of population increase, but since 1981, birth rates have been gradually declining, resulting in a slower rate of population expansion.
- Migration refers to people moving between areas and countries. This might be either domestic (inside the country) or international (within the world) (between the countries).
- Internal migration does not alter the population’s size, but it does alter the distribution of people within a country.
- The majority of migrations in India have been from rural to urban areas, owing to poor economic conditions and unemployment in rural areas, and better job possibilities and living conditions in cities.
- Migration’s Effects:
- It alters the size of the population.
- In terms of age and sex composition, it also modifies the population composition of urban and rural populations.
- In India, rural-to-urban migration has resulted in a constant growth in the proportion of the population living in cities and towns.
Composition of Age
- A country’s population age composition refers to the number of people in various age groups.
- The number and percentage of people in the child, working-age, and elderly groups are important factors of the social and economic structure of a population.
- The country’s population can be divided into three categories:
Children (under the age of 15) are economically unproductive and require food, clothes, education, and medical care. It accounts for 34.4 percent of India’s overall population.
Working age (15-59 years) is both economically and biologically productive. Assumed to be a working population. It accounts for 6.9% of India’s overall population.
Those who are over the age of 59 can still be economically active, even if they have retired. Even though they are employed, they are not available for recruiting. It accounts for 58.7% of India’s overall population.
Ratio of men to women
- The sex ratio is the number of females in a population divided by the number of males.
- Importance: determining the degree of equality between men and women in a society at a specific point in time. The sex ratio in India has always been unfavourable to women.
- Year of Census with Sex Ratio:
Year of the Census
Ratio of men to women
Literacy rates are high.
- A person aged 7 and above who can read and write in any language with comprehension is considered literate, according to the 2011 Census. Low literacy is a significant impediment to economic progress.
- According to the 2011 Census, the country’s literacy rate is 73 percent, with males accounting for 80.9 percent and females accounting for 64.6 percent.
Structure of the Workforce
- The occupational structure is the distribution of the population according to different types of occupations.
- Occupations are typically divided into three groups:
- Primary activities:- Agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining, and quarrying are examples of primary land activities.
- Secondary activities (industrial-related): This category covers the manufacturing industry, as well as building and construction activity.
- Tertiary activities Transportation, communications, trade, administration, and other services are examples of tertiary activities (connected to services).
- Those in developed countries are more likely to engage in secondary and tertiary activities, whereas people in poor countries are more likely to engage in primary activities.
- In India, agriculture employs over 64% of the population. Secondary education is used by 13% of the population, while postsecondary education is used by 20%.
- Because of recent industry and urbanisation, individuals are increasingly gravitating towards secondary and tertiary education.
- Population composition has an impact on development since health is an essential factor.
- There has been a considerable improvement in India’s health situation. Death rates have dropped from 25 per 1000 people in 1951 to 7.2 per 1000 people in 2011, while life expectancy has improved from 36.7 years in 1951 to 67.9 years in 2012.
- The improvement can be attributed to the following factors:
Enhancement of public health
Infectious disease prevention is important.
Modern medical procedures are used in the diagnosis and treatment of illnesses.
- India’s health is still a big concern because:
Malnutrition affects a huge percentage of our population, and per capita calorie consumption is much below recommended levels.
Only one-third of the rural population has access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
Population of Adolescents
- Adolescents are defined as those between the ages of 10 and 19. It accounts for one-fifth of India’s overall population.
- They are a country’s most vital future resources. Adolescents’ nutritional needs are higher than those of a typical child or adult.
- Adolescents in India have a diet that is deficient in all nutrients. Anemia affects a substantial proportion of adolescent girls (deficiency of red blood cells or haemoglobin).
- Spreading literacy and education among adolescent girls can help to raise awareness.
Population Policy at the National Level
- In 1952, the Indian government launched the Comprehensive Family Planning Programme with the goal of promoting individual health and welfare.
- On a voluntary basis, it aimed to promote responsible and planned parenthood.
- The National Population Policy (NPP) 2000 represents the culmination of years of planning.
What is the goal of NPP?
It establishes a policy framework for providing free and obligatory school education to children aged 14 and up.
Getting the infant mortality rate below 30 per 1000 live births is a big goal.
Ensure that all children are immunised against all vaccine-preventable illnesses.
promoting girls’ postponed marriage
Making family welfare a programme that focuses on the needs of the people.
The NPP 2000 and Adolescents Relationship
- According to NPP 2000, teens are one of the primary groups of people that require more attention.
- In addition to dietary needs, the strategy prioritised other essential needs of teenagers, such as preventing unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STD).
- The adolescent programmes initiated by NPP 2000 are aimed at:
- Encouragement of postponed marriage and childbearing.
- Adolescent education about the dangers of unprotected sex.
- Increasing the availability and affordability of contraceptive services.
- Providing nutritional services and dietary supplements.
- Strengthening legal safeguards against child marriage.
Do you remember what happened in chapter?
- Only Bangladesh and Japan have more people per square kilometre than India.
- Kerala has 1058 females per 1000 males, Pondicherry has 1001 females per 1000 males, while Delhi and Haryana have just 821 and 861 females per 1000 males, respectively.