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NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Climate

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Climate

 

EXERCISE

Question:- 1. Choose the correct answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following places receives the highest rainfall in the world?

(a) Silchar                              (c) Cherrapunji

(b) Mawsynram                   (d) Guwahati

Answer:- (b) Mawsynram                   

 

 

 

(ii) The wind blowing in the northern plains in summers is known as:

(a) Kaal Baisakhi                                      (c) Trade Winds

(b) Loo                                                       (d) None of the above

Answer:- (b) Loo                                                       

 

 

 

(iii) Which one of the following causes rainfall during winters in north-western part of India.

(a) Cyclonic depression                                      (c) Western disturbances

(b) Retreating monsoon                                     (d) Southwest monsoon

Answer:- (c) Western disturbances

 

 

 

(iv) Monsoon arrives in India approximately in:

(a) Early May                                    (c) Early June

(b) Early July                                     (d) Early August

Answer:- (c) Early June

 

 

 

 

(v) Which one of the following characterises the cold weather season in India?

(a) Warm days and warm nights

(b) Warm days and cold nights

(c) Cool days and cold nights

(d) Cold days and warm nights

Answer:- (c) Cool days and cold nights

 

 

 

Question:- 2. Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) What are the controls affecting the climate of India?

Answer:- There are six major controls of the climate of any place. They are:

 

  1. Latitude
  2. Altitude
  3. Pressure and wind system
  4. Distance from the sea (continentality)
  5. Ocean currents
  6. Relief features

 

 

 (ii) Why does India have a monsoon type of climate?

Answer:- Because to the enormous effect of the monsoon winds throughout the subcontinent, India has a monsoon climate. When the summer monsoons blow from the sea to the land, they bring a lot of rain. Winter monsoon winds move from the heart of the continent to the sea, bringing little rain. The’monsoon’ wind system undergoes a seasonal reversal.

 

 

 (iii) Which part of India does experience the highest diurnal range of temperature and why?

Answer:- The Thar desert has the widest temperature swings during the day. This is owing to the fact that the temperature climbs to over 50°C during the day and lowers to below 15°C at night due to the lack of sunlight and vegetation.

 

 

 (iv) Which winds account for rainfall along the Malabar coast?

Answer:- Arabian Sea Branch of the South West summer Monsoons.

 

 

 (v) What are Jet streams and how do they affect the climate of India?

Answer:- Jet Streams are a short band of high-altitude westerly winds in the troposphere (above 12,000 m). In the summer, they travel at around 110 km/h while in the winter, they go at over 184 km/h. Several distinct jet streams have been identified. The mid-latitude and subtropical jet streams are the most reliable. During the monsoon season, they produce depression.

 

 

 (vi) Define monsoons. What do you understand by “break” in monsoon?

Answer:- The monsoon is a seasonal shift of wind direction that occurs within a year. The monsoon has ‘breaks’ in its rainfall, which means there are rainy and dry periods in between. The monsoon rains last only a few days at a time before returning to rainless periods.

 

 

 (vii) Why is the monsoon considered a unifying bond?

Answer:- Despite the moderating influence of other variables, the Indian subcontinent exhibits a wide range of temperature conditions. The monsoons have a bringing together effect since the rainfall they bring impacts the entire country. Water is thus provided for agricultural purposes as well as for use in rivers around the country. The monsoons bind the entire continent, and everyone looks forward to their arrival.

 

 

Question:- 3. Why does the rainfall decrease from the east to the west in Northern India.

Answer:- The moisture content of the winds decreases as they go in the direction. As a result, there has been a decrease in rainfall.

 

 

Question:- 4. Give reasons as to why.

(i) Seasonal reversal of wind direction takes place over the Indian subcontinent?

Answer:- Pressure differential causes a seasonal change in wind direction over the Indian subcontinent. The seasonal change in wind direction over the Indian subcontinent is largely due to El Nino.

 

 

 (ii) The bulk of rainfall in India is concentrated over a few months.

Answer:- The monsoon season begins in the first week of June and moves quickly, covering nearly the whole country by mid-July. As a result, the majority of India’s rainfall falls within a few months, primarily June to August.

 

 

 (iii) The Tamil Nadu coast receives winter rainfall.

Answer:- Because of the migration of low-pressure systems into the Bay of Bengal, the Tami Nadu coast receives winter rains.

 

 

 (iv) The delta region of the eastern coast is frequently struck by cyclones.

Answer:- Because the Bay of Bengal is at the centre of multiple pressure shifts, cyclone development is always a possibility. As a result, cyclones commonly strike the eastern coast’s delta region.

 

 

 (v) Parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats are drought-prone.

Answer:- The portions are located in the Aravalli’s rain shadow. As a result of the lack of rainfall, they are prone to drought.

 

 

Question:- 5. Describe the regional variations in the climatic conditions of India with the help of suitable examples.

Answer:- The following facts are crucial to understanding the monsoon’s mechanism.

 

  1. The differential in the pace at which land and aquatic bodies heat and cool. In the summer, the land has low pressure while the water has high pressure.
  2. The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone shifts over the Northern Plains in the summer (its regular position is around 5°N of the Equator).
  3. The Indian Monsoons are influenced by the existence of a high-pressure region east of Madagascar.
  4. In the summer, the Tibetan plateau is extremely hot, resulting in low pressure.
  5. During the summer, the westerly and easterly jet streams cross the Indian peninsula.

 

 

Question:- 6. Discuss the mechanism of monsoons.

Answer:- The following facts are crucial to understanding the monsoon’s mechanism.

 

  1. The differential in the pace at which land and aquatic bodies heat and cool. In the summer, the land has low pressure while the water has high pressure.
  2. The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone shifts over the Northern Plains in the summer (its regular position is around 5°N of the Equator).
  3. The Indian Monsoons are influenced by the existence of a high-pressure region east of Madagascar.
  4. In the summer, the Tibetan plateau is extremely hot, resulting in low pressure.
  5. During the summer, the westerly and easterly jet streams cross the Indian peninsula.

 

 

Question:- 7. Give an account of weather conditions and characteristics of the cold

Answer:- Despite the pattern’s overall constancy, there are regional variations in weather conditions across the country. The two main factors that cause these variations are temperature and precipitation.

Temperatures in some parts of the Rajasthan desert, for example, can reach 50°C in the summer, while temperatures in Pahalgam, Jammu and Kashmir, can reach 20°C. The temperature at Drass, Jammu and Kashmir, can dip to minus 45°C on a winter night. Tiruvananthapuram, on the other hand, might see temperatures as high as 20°C.

 

 

Question:- 8. Give the characteristics and effects of the monsoon rainfall in India.

Answer:- The monsoon rain has various qualities that distinguish it from other types of rain.

(a) Monsoon winds are unreliable since their arrival and departure times vary from year to year.

(c) Rainfall is spread unevenly. Rainfall is high in certain parts (windward slopes of the Western Ghats), while it is light in others (Thar Desert), resulting in floods and droughts.

(c) The monsoon rains are concentrated in three months of the year (June–September), with the rest of the year being mostly dry.

(d) There is a seasonal wind reversal.

In India, the monsoon rains are significant, and their impact may be observed when they come. People all around the country are looking forward to its arrival. Farmers are ready to plant their seeds, and agricultural work begins. Water is supplied to rivers, which transport it to various sections of the country. The arrival of the monsoons rejuvenates plants and animals. The provision of water via rivers is critical for the creation of electricity.