NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern India
Q.1 Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?
Answer:- Tribes that are nomadic shift from place to place to preserve their way of life and means of subsistence. The availability of water and new pastures for their animals are essential to their survival because they are engaged in animal husbandry. They relocate to the next place in search of new grazing grounds when the pasture is exhausted.
The advantages of the environment are as follows:-
(I) The area’s ecological balance is maintained by giving the environment a chance to grow and heal.
(II) It stops overgrazing, which would otherwise deplete available grazing areas for the future.
(III) Animal manure contributes to soil fertility, making it possible to continue living a nomadic lifestyle and migrating from one place to another.
Q.2 Discuss why the colonial Government in India brought in the following laws. In each case explain how the law changed the lives of the pastoralists.
Criminal Tribes Act
- Wasteland rules: The colonial authority regarded all uncultivated areas or wastelands as unproductive because they did not produce any income or agricultural goods. The Waste Land Rules were put into effect in all of India starting in the middle of the nineteenth century in order to cultivate this “wasteland”. Selected people were given these lands along with a variety of concessions, and they were urged to populate them. The majority of these properties were formerly utilised for grazing by pastoralists. Therefore, the increase in cultivation resulted in a decrease in the number of pastures, which presented a challenge for pastoralists.
- Forest Acts: In order to generate commercially useful timber like deodar or sal, a number of forest acts were passed. The designation of some forest tracts as “Reserved” barred pastoralists from entering these woodlands. Pastoralists who were categorised as “Protected” enjoyed some customary grazing rights, but their freedom of movement was severely constrained.
The colonial rulers believed that grazing harmed roots and reduced the fertility of the forests, thus they passed these prohibitions. The pastoralists were impacted in that their movements were constrained with set timings to limit the amount of time they spent in the woodlands. It is acceptable to state that their lives were governed by the forest agencies’ permissions.
- Criminal Tribes Act: Nomadic people were viewed with mistrust and contempt by the British government. Tribes that were nomadic were frequently relocated in quest of new grazing areas. This made it challenging for them to manage and recognise such individuals. On the other hand, they perceived the settlers as tranquil and law-abiding.
Thus, in 1871, the British created the Criminal Tribes Act in an effort to subjugate pastoralist and nomadic people. Communities of artisans, dealers, and pastoralists were labelled as criminals by this statute simply by virtue of their existence.
They were compelled to remain in one place and were prohibited from moving without a permit. As a result, they were closely monitored by the village police.
- Grazing Tax: The colonial administration taxed land, salt, canal water, and animals in order to raise money. Every animal that a pastoralist allowed to graze in the pastures was subject to a levy.
By the middle of the nineteenth century, the Grazing Tax had been implemented in India. Contractors won the bidding for the authority to levy these taxes in the 1850s. In order to recoup the money they paid to the government, the contractors made an effort to collect as much tax as they could. The pastoralists had to take fewer animals for grazing in order to get paid less.
Q.3 Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.
Answer:- European colonial powers divided the continent into many colonies in the late nineteenth century during what would come to be known as the “scramble for Africa” with little to no consideration for the feelings of the native population. Maasailand, the home of the Maasai, was divided in half in 1885 by a border between British Kenya and German Tanzania. Because of this, European settlers were given priority over Maasai, who were forced into a limited region in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.
Large tracts of grazing land were also converted into game reserves, such as the Serengeti Park in Tanzania and the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Parks in Kenya. Pastoralists were prohibited from entering these reserves; they were also not permitted to hunt or graze their herds there.
Q.4 There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.
Answer:- European colonial powers had occupied both East Africa and India. There were many similarities in which both the regions were exploited by these powers
(I) Forest laws:-
The livelihoods of pastoralists in Africa and India have changed as a result of various forest laws.
The forest was designated as a reserved and protected area in India. There was no access for pastoralists to the protected woodland.
The Maasai people have a number of issues, one of which being the ongoing loss of their grazing areas. The colonial authorities encouraged the neighbourhood peasants to increase farming.
- b) Closing of borders:-
With the international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika, the African nation of Maasailand was divided in half. The White immigrants took all the best land, forcing the natives into a tiny region with few pastures.
The Raikas were compelled by India’s political division to look for fresh pastures in Haryana because they were no longer permitted to travel to Sindh, which had become a province of Pakistan. The herders are unable to travel to Pakistan’s Sindh region because it has joined that country.