NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 3 Nazism and the Rise of Hitler
Question: 1. Describe the problems faced by the Weimar Republic.
Answer:- The problems faced by the Weimar Republic were:
- Versailles treaty: The First World War’s end was marked by the signing of the Versailles Peace Treaty, which stripped Germany of her lands, its wealth, and its national pride. Additionally, he was required to pay 6 billion pounds in war damages. The humiliating pact was ratified by the Weimar Republic despite its harsh stipulations, which made it unpopular with the majority of Germans.
- Economic Crisis: Due to massive war bills that had to be settled in gold, the German state was left bankrupt. Gold reserves eventually ran out, and the value of the German mark decreased. Essential products saw a sharp increase in price.
- Political flaws: Because of intrinsic constitutional abnormalities like proportional representation and Article 48, the Weimar Republic was weak (which gave the President the power to impose emergency and rule by decree). In the midst of the severe economic crisis, the democratic parliamentary system didn’t seem to provide the people any benefits or remedies.
Question: 2. Discuss why Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930.
Answer:- Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930 due to the following reasons:
- The Great Depression stands out as the most prominent. Hitler was portrayed as a saviour to the humiliated German people who were suffering from economic and political crises since the Weimar Republic achieved little to reverse the nation’s economic decline.
- People’s hopes were sparked by Hitler’s stirring speeches, in which he vowed to create a great nation, reverse the injustice of the Versailles Treaty, restore the dignity of the German people, and create jobs for everyone.
- Nazi propaganda was exceptional. People were drawn to the red flags bearing the Nazi salute, the Swastika, and rounds of applause, which helped make Nazism very well known.
Question: 3. What are the peculiar features of Nazi thinking?
Answer:- The peculiar features of Nazi thinking were
- A belief in the existence of racial hierarchy and Lebensraum.
- Nordic German Aryans were at the top of the racial scale, with Jews at the bottom.
- They thought that the only race that would prevail and dominate was the strongest.
- To increase Germany’s natural resources and might, new regions must be acquired.
Question: 4. Explain why Nazi propaganda was effective in creating a hatred for Jews.
Answer:- Nazi propaganda was effective in creating hatred for the Jews:
- The Nazis skillfully and effectively manipulated language and media. The Nazis’ claim that Jews belonged to a lesser race and were thus undesirable was based on racial theory.
- The Nazis made full advantage of the traditional Christian antipathy toward Jews, which stemmed from the belief that they were responsible for the death of Christ.
- Even throughout the early years of their schooling, the Nazis ingrained hatred of Jews in the brains of the children. Jewish teachers were fired, and Jewish students were expelled from the schools. Such techniques and fresh ideological instruction given to the next generation of kids went a great way toward making Nazi propaganda highly efficient at instilling anti-Semitism.
- The goal of propaganda movies was to incite animosity toward Jews. Jews who were Orthodox were stigmatised and marked. The Eternal Jew, for instance, was one of these movies.
Question: 5. Explain what role women had in Nazi society. Return to Chapter 1 on the French Revolution. Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting the role of women in the two periods.
Answer:- The role of women in Nazi society was predominantly patriarchal or male-dominated. Hitler praised women and referred to them as “the most important citizen” in his Germany, but this only applied to Aryan women who produced pure-blood, “desirable” Aryans. The only thing they were taught to strive towards, other from carrying out the conventional duties of running the home and being excellent spouses, was motherhood. This stood in stark contrast to the role that women played during the French Revolution, when they spearheaded movements and battled for equality in pay and access to education. After the French Revolution, schooling became a requirement for them, and they were permitted to organise political groups.
Question: 6. In what ways did the Nazi state seek to establish total control over its people?
Answer:- The Nazis established control over its people by various means:
- To celebrate their actions, they produced various forms of propaganda, such as posters and movies.
- The media was skillfully used to gain support for the administration and make it more well-known.
- Nazism influenced people’s thoughts and emotions, tapping into their fury and hatred for those deemed “undesirable.”
- In order to manage and organise society in the ways that the Nazis desired, specialised surveillance and security forces were established. The police forces had the authority to govern indiscriminately. Genocide also helped them achieve complete control over their population by fostering a climate of fear and repression.