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NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

 

Question-1 What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?

Answer:- Before 1905, Russia experienced the following social, economic, and political circumstances.

(a) Social Conditions :-  Russian Orthodox Christianity, which originated in the Greek Orthodox Church, was the predominant religion in the country. However, there were also Catholics, Protestants, Muslims, and Buddhists living throughout the empire. The treatment of non-Russian nations differed from that of Russian nationals. They were denied the freedom to practise their language and culture. Based on their abilities and training, the workers were classified into groups. Peasants established their commune or mir.

 

(b) Economic conditions:- The vast majority of Russians were farmers. The biggest export from Russia was grain. Few industries existed. There were two major industrial hubs: St. Petersburg and Moscow. The craftspeople handled a large portion of the production. Large factories coexisted with the craft studios. Foreign investment in manufacturing increased as the Russian rail network grew. Steel, iron, and coal were produced in enormous quantities. Both manufacturing employees and craftspeople were present in equal numbers. Capitalists who took advantage of the workers made their lives miserable.

 

(c) Political Conditions:- Russian politics at the time were monarchical. (Tsar Nicholas II controlled Russia and its empire, which included sections of Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, and modern-day Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. It extended to the Pacific and included Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan in addition to the modern Central Asian states. The Tsars held the notion that kings have inherent rights. They had no accountability to the Parliament. In Russia, all political parties were prohibited.

 

 

Question-2 In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?

Answer:- In contrast to Russia, the working population in Europe was a more united group. German and English workers organised into unions and campaigned for better living and working circumstances. These Associations established funds to aid workers who were in need. The desire for a reduction in working hours and the right to vote was shared by all employees in European nations. Workers’ associations sponsored political parties as well before starting their own. Political parties founded by socialists and labour activists include the Labour Party in Britain and the Socialist Party in France.

The Russian working class was not cohesive like the working people in Europe. The division of the workforce was done according to occupation. Employees whose professions required competence and training thought of themselves as superior than untrained employees. There was a social division among workers as a result of their close ties to their home areas. Like in Europe, the number of workers’ associations grew substantially in Russia. They pushed for shorter hours and higher pay. The government repressed the workers.

 

 

Question-3 Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?

Answer:- As a result of the First World War, there was a strong anti-German sentiment throughout Russia. Furthermore, the autocracy was unpopular due to Tsarina Alexandra’s German ancestry and subpar advisors. On the ocean, Russia endured shocking losses that cost millions of lives. To prevent the adversary from gaining an edge, the Russian army burned crops and structures. millions of refugees as a result. Tsar was receiving a curse as a result of this. People started rioting because of the food crisis. The Russian army also changed its allegiance and started aiding the rebels.

 

On February 22, a lockout occurred at a factory on the right bank of the Neva River in support of the workers there. During strikes, women took the lead. A curfew was imposed by the government. Later, the authorities suspended the Duma, sparking violent demonstrations. The protesters destroyed the police headquarters while yelling anti-democracy and pro-bread slogans.

Although the authorities summoned the cavalry, they declined to open fire on the protesters. In the structure where the Duma met, soldiers and the striking workers gathered to establish a “Soviet” or “council.” The Petrograd Soviet was this. When a delegation visited the Tsar the very following day, the military leaders persuaded him to step down. A Provisional Government was established by Soviet and Duma leaders to govern the nation. As a result, the Tsarist regime fell in February 1917.

 

 

 

Question-4 Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history.

Answer:-  

The February Revolution’s main events:

 

  1. There was a food scarcity in the workers’ quarters in February 1917.
  2. A factory on the right bank experienced a lockout on February 22. Women had a crucial role in the strikes that were called by workers at fifty factories. International Women’s Day was later given to this day.
  3. The Duma was shut down by the administration on February 25.
  4. On February 27, protesters demonstrated and shouted slogans demanding bread, pay, better hours, and democracy outside the police department.
  5. Soviet Petrograd was established.
  6. On March 2, the Tsar abdicated; the monarchy was established in February 1917.
  7. A Provisional Government was established by Soviet and Duma leaders to govern the nation.

 

 

The February Revolution’s effects

  1. Public gathering and association restrictions were lifted.
  2. There were “Soviets” established up all throughout, like the Petrograd Soviet, but there was no standard election procedure.
  3. Trade unions became more numerous.
  4. Factory committees were established in industrial districts to investigate how manufacturers managed their facilities.
  5. In the Army, committees of soldiers were established.
  6. The power of the interim government decreased as the Bolsheviks’ influence grew.
  7. Redistribution of land was a common demand among peasants and their socialist revolutionary leaders in the countryside, and land committees were established to handle it.

 

Main events of the October Revolution:

Lenin believed that the provisional administration would establish a dictatorship as the confrontation between it and the Bolsheviks escalated. Lenin started planning a coup against the government. The Army’s Bolshevik allies, Soviets, and industry came together. Lenin convinced the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to approve a socialist takeover of power on October 16, 1917. The Soviet created a military revolutionary committee led by Leon Trotsky to plan the takeover. The insurrection started on October 24th, 1917. Government-aligned military personnel seized the offices of two Bolshevik periodicals. To take over the phone and telegraph offices and guard the Winter Palace, pro-government troops were dispatched. The Military Revolutionary Committee retaliated by ordering its followers to occupy government buildings and detain ministers. As other ships proceeded down the Neva and occupied other military outposts, the Aurora blasted the Winter Palace. By the end of the month, a committee had taken leadership of the city, and the ministers had left. Bolsheviks were in charge of the Moscow-Petrograd region by December.

 

The October Revolution’s effects

 

  1. By November 1917, all businesses and banks had been nationalised; the government now controlled and managed them.
  2. The land was designated as social property, and nobility-owned land may be seized by peasants.
  3. The Bolsheviks mandated the division of large houses into separate living quarters for each family in the cities.
  4. Old aristocratic titles were forbidden.
  5. The troops and authorities now wear brand-new uniforms.
  6. The Russian Communist Party replaced the term Bolshevik Party (Bolshevik)
  7. The Bolsheviks held elections for the constituent assembly, but they fell short of winning the majority. Lenin disbanded the assembly when it rejected the Bolshevik measures.
  8. The whole Russian Congress of Soviets was transformed into the national legislature. Russia changed into a one-party system.
  9. The party maintained power over the unions. Anyone who criticised the Bolsheviks was persecuted by the Secret Police. Young authors and artists who supported the Party because it promoted socialism did so in the future.
  10. In arts and architecture, numerous experiments were conducted. But the censorship caused a lot of people to be dissatisfied.

 

Question-5 What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?

Answer:-

  1. By November 1917, all businesses and banks had been nationalised; the government now controlled and managed them.
  2. The nobility’s land could now be seized because it had been deemed a social property.
  3. The Bolsheviks mandated the division of large mansions into sections according to the needs of each family in the cities.
  4. Old aristocratic titles were banned.
  5. The troops and authorities now wear brand-new uniforms.
  6. Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) was given the name of the former Bolshevik Party.
  7. Elections were held for the constituent assembly, but the Bolsheviks did not win a majority, the measures they proposed were rejected by the assembly, and Lenin disbanded the body.
  8. The entire Russian Congress of Soviets evolved into the national legislature. Russia changed into a one-party system.
  9. The Secret Police prosecuted anyone who criticised the Bolsheviks, and the trade unions were maintained under party control. The Party, which stood for socialism, continued to have the support of many young artists and authors.
  10. In arts and architecture, numerous experiments were conducted. But the censorship made a lot of artists angry.

 

 

Question-6 Write a few lines to show what you know about:

(i) Kulaks

(ii) The Duma

(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930.

(iv) The Liberals.

(v) Stalins collectivization programme.

Answer:-  (i) Kulaks: They were the well-to-do peasants who were supposed to be holding stocks in the hope of higher prices. They were raided so that they may be eliminated in order to develop modern farms and establish state-controlled large farms.

 

(ii) The Duma: The Duma was a consultative parliament that was created on the permission of the Tsar during the 1905 Revolution.

 

(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930: Women made up 31% of the factory labour force, but were paid between 1/2 and 3/4 of a man’s wages. They actively led the strikes in many factories. They even worked on collective farms.

 

(iv) The Liberals: They were a group which looked to change society. They wanted a nation which tolerated all religions and opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary independent of rulers and officials.

 

(v) Stalin’s collectivisation programme: Stalin hoped to solve the problem of food shortage by combining small farms with large and modern farms. This was collectivisation programme that began in 1929. Peasants were forced to work in these state-controlled collective farms called Kolkhoz.