NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1 The French Revolution
Question 1. Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.
Answer: The circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France were:
Social inequality: In the eighteenth century, France’s society was split into three estates: the clergy, the nobility, and the third estate, which was made up of peasants, government employees, and small businesses. Only third estates were required to pay taxes. Taxes were not applied to the clergy or the nobility.
Crisis of Subsistence: France’s population grew from 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789. Foodgrains were in high demand right now. Bread’s cost skyrocketed. Increased prices were not matched by rising wages. A crisis of survival resulted from this.
Economic issues: France’s financial resources had been depleted over several years of war. A debt of more than 2 billion lives was owed by France. The state was compelled to raise taxes to cover its ongoing costs, including those associated with running its institutions, courts, government offices, and armies.
Strong Middle Class: During the eighteenth century, the middle class became well-educated and affluent. They held that no social group should be granted privileges simply by virtue of their birth. The concepts of freedom and equality were advanced by philosophers. These philosophers’ ideas were vigorously debated and disseminated among individuals in salons and coffee shops.
Immediate Causes: On May 5, 1789, Louis XVI convened an Estates General assembly to approve plans for additional taxes. Third estates objected to the proposition, but the monarch disregarded them because each estate only had one vote. They left the gathering by leaving.
Question 2. Which group of French society benefited from the revolution? Which group were forced to relinquish power? Which section of the society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution?
Answer: The French Revolution helped the middle class or the wealthier members of the Third Estate, who included rich peasants, tradesmen, attorneys, and merchants. The Third Estate was no longer required to uphold feudal obligations. Tithes were eliminated, (the tax that was paid to the Church).
The classes that were compelled to cede power were the church and nobles. They were now unable to collect taxes, and their lands were taken.
The French Revolution’s outcome dissatisfied the third estate’s lower classes and women because their ambitions were not fully met, for instance, women were not granted the right to vote. Poor men were prohibited from voting if they did not have fully developed property or did not pay taxes.
Question 3. Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the people of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Answer. The French Revolution left behind the most important legacies in the form of the concepts of liberty and democratic rights. Over the course of the nineteenth century, when feudal systems were abolished, these expanded from France to the rest of Europe. It served as a catalyst for the overthrow of authoritarian regimes in Germany, Italy, and Austria. The oppressed nations of Asia and Africa that were writhing under European colonialism were inspired by the French Revolution. Rajaram Mohan Roy and Tipu Sultan are two instances of people who reacted to ideas that originated with the French Revolution.
Question 4. Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution.
Answer. We can trace the origin of the following democratic rights we enjoy today to the French revolution:-
- Right to Equality
- Right to Freedom
- Freedom of Speech and expression
- Right against exploitations
- Right to justice
Question 5. Would you agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions? Explain.
Answer:- There were several inconsistencies in the message of universal rights. The “Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen” contained several unclear ideals. They held dubious connotations.
The French Revolution was unable to bring about economic equality, and it is true that real equality cannot be achieved in any area unless there is economic equality. Although equality was emphasised in the Declaration of Human and Citizen Rights, a sizable portion of the population was excluded. The challenge facing the poor man was not resolved by their ability to vote and choose their representatives.
Still, women were seen as passive citizens. They lacked all political rights, including the ability to vote and hold elected office like men. As a result, they kept fighting for political equality.
France kept holding and growing its colonies. As a result, its reputation as a liberator could not endure for very long.
Up to the first half of the 19th century, slavery existed in France.
Question 6. How would you explain the rise of Napoleon?
Answer:- Napoleon Bonaparte’s rise was made possible by the Directory’s political instability. Napoleon had won a number of magnificent battles. This helped France realise that the only person who could re-establish a stable government was a military dictator like Napoleon.
He declared himself the emperor of France in 1804. He set out to conquer nearby European nations, overthrowing dynasties and establishing kingdoms in which to settle his family. Napoleon thought of himself as modernising Europe.
In addition to the protection of private property and the decimal system’s provision of a standard system of weights and measures, he also created a number of other laws. However, his ascent to power was short-lived. In 1815’s Battle of Waterloo, he was finally vanquished.