Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management Notes

Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management Notes

What is Crop?

When plants of the same kind are cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called a crop. For example, crop of wheat means that all the plants grown in a field are that of wheat.


On the  Basis of Season Write the Types of Crops.

On the basis of season Types of crops Are given below:-

1. Kharif Crops:

  1. The crops which are sown in the rainy season are called kharif crop.
  2. The rainy season in India is from June to September.
  3. For Example- Paddy, maize, soybean, groundnut, cotton.

2. Rabi Crops: –

  1. The crops grown in the winter season are Rabi crops.
  2. Their time Period is generally from October to March.
  3. For Example- Wheat, gram, pea, mustard and linseed.

Point to Remember: – (Paddy is not cultivated in summer season because it requires lot of water. Therefore, it is cultivated in rainy season).


What do you mean by the term agricultural practice?

Agricultural practices are those practices which involve the necessary steps to be taken during production of crops.


What are the Basic Practices of Crop Production ?

Cultivation of crops involves several activities undertaken by farmers over a period of time. These activities or tasks are referred o as agricultural practices which are listed below:-

  1. Preparation of soil
  2. Sowing
  3. Adding manure and fertilizers
  4. Irrigation
  5. Protecting from weeds
  6. Harvesting
  7. Storage


Explain Preparation of soil.

The preparation of soil is the first step before growing a crop. It is one of the most important tasks in agricultural by which we turn the soil and loosen it.

This allows the roots to penetrate deep into the soil. The loose soil allows the roots to breathe easily even when they go deep into the soil.

The loosened soil helps in the growth of earthworm and microbes present in the soil. These organisms are friends of the farmer since they further turn and loose the soil and add humus to it.

Only a few centimeters of the top layer of soil supports plant growth, turning and loosening of soil brings the nutrient-rich soil to the top so that plants can use these nutrients.


What is Ploughing or tilling? State its advantages.

The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called tilling or ploughing. This is done by using a plough. Ploughs are made of wood or iron.

Following are the advantages of ploughing or tilling:-

  1. Ploughing loosens the soil and makes it aerated.
  2. It helps in mixing organic matter with the soil uniformly.
  3. It initiates the growth of natural agents and microorganisms and thus, keeps the soil fertile.
  4. It increases the water holding capacity of soil.
  5. It helps in easy penetration of root into the soil.


What are crumbs?.

Big clumps of soil are called crumbs.  

Point to Remember: –  The ploughed field may have big clumps of soil called crumbs. It is necessary to break these crumbs. Levelling of soil is done with the help of a leveller to break these Crumbs.


What is a plough?

A plough is an equipment for ploughing. It contains a strong triangular iron strip called ploughshare. The main part of the plough is a long log of wood which is called a plough shaft. There is a handle at one end of the shaft. The other end is attached to a beam which is placed on the bulls’ necks.

What is a plough

Explain the term levelling. What are the advantages of levelling?

Levelling is the process of breaking down the large lumps of soil, and then levelling them by using a tool named leveller.

Following are the advantages of leveling:-

  1. Levelling helps to prevent soil erosion caused by wind or air.
  2. It helps in sowing the seeds uniformly, and thus helps the plants to grow uniformly too.
  3. It helps in proper irrigation by allowing the water to get distributed uniformly throughout the soil.


What is Hoe?

It is a simple tool which is used for removing weeds and for loosening the soil. It has a long rod of wood or iron. A strong, broad and bent plate of iron is fixed to one of its ends and works like a blade. It is pulled by animals.

What is Hoe

What is Cultivator?

Cultivator is a modern machine used for Cultivation of the field. Nowadays ploughing is done by tractor driven cultivator. The use of cultivator saves labour and time.


What is Sowing?

Sowing is the most important part of crop production. Before sowing, good quality seeds are selected. Farmers prefer to use seeds which give a high yield.

Point to Remember: –  Full form of HYV is high yield Variety. (Seeds that give high yield are called HYV Seeds.


How to Select Good Seeds?

Take a beaker and fill half of it with water. Put a handful of wheat seeds and stir well. Wait for sometime. Damaged seeds would Float on top of water. Damaged seeds become hollow and are thus lighter.Therefore, they float on water.This is a good method for separating good, healthy seeds from the damaged ones.


Write the tools used for sowing seeds?

The Following are the two important tools used for sowing seeds:-

  • Traditional tool: The tool used traditionally for sowing seeds is shaped like a funnel. The seeds are filled into the funnel, passed down through two or three pipes having sharp ends. These ends pierce into the soil and place seeds there.
  • Seed drill: The seed drill is used for sowing with the help of tractors. This tool sows the seeds uniformly at proper distances and depths. It ensures that seeds get covered by the soil after sowing. This prevents damage caused by birds. Sowing by using a seed drill saves time and labour.

Point to Remember: –  It is important to maintain the distance to avoid overcrowding of plants to ensure proper nutrients, sufficient sunlight and water.

What are the Method of replenishing the soil with nutrients?

There are the following two Main Methods of replenishing the soil with nutrients:-

  1. Manuring
  2. Crop rotation.

What is Manuring?

Continuous cultivation of crops makes the soil poor in nutrients. Therefore, farmers have to add manure to the fields to replenish the soil with nutrients.  This process is called Manuring.

What is Crop Rotation?

Crop rotation is the practice growing different crops alternately on the same plot of land to improve soil health, optimize nutrients in the soil, and combat pest and weed pressure.

Which bacteria is present in root nodules of leguminous plants that fix the atmospheric Nitrogen?

Rhizobium bacteria are present in the nodules of roots of leguminous plants.

Write the Differences between Fertiliser and Manure





Fertiliser is a man-made in organic  salt.

Manure is a natural substance obtained by the decomposition of cattle dung and plant residues.


Fertiliser is prepared in Factories.

Manure can be prepared in the fields.


Fertiliser does not provide any humus to the soil.

Manure provides a lot of humus to the soil.


Fertilisers are very rich plant nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Manure is relatively less rich in plant nutrients.


Some examples of fertilisers are— urea, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, potash, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium).

Some examples of manure are – animal waste, human waste, plant residue

What are the Advantages of Manure?

  1. It enhances the water holding capacity of the soil.
  2. It makes the soil porous due to which exchange of gases becomes easy.
  3. It increases the number of friendlylit improves the texture of the soil.


What is irrigation? Name the sources of water for irrigation .

The supply of water to crops at regular intervals is called irrigation. The sources of water for irrigation are— wells, tubewells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams and canals.



Name the two main methods of irrigation and briefly define them.

The two main methods of irrigation are Following:-

  1. Traditional method: The traditional method of irrigation is very less expensive and they often lead to wastage of water.

Traditional method of irrigation involves

  1. Chain Pump
  2. Dhekli
  3. Moat (the pulley system)
  4. Rahat (lever system).

2.Modern method: Modern methods of irrigation are more inclined towards the use of diesel, bio¬gas, solar energy and electricity for lifting water.

The two most important modern system of irrigation are:

  1. Sprinkler irrigation system
  2. Drip irrigation system

How does the Sprinkler irrigation system Works?

  1. First the perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles  on  top,  are joined  to  the  main  pipeline at  regular   
  2. Then water  is  allowed  to  flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, then it escapes from the  rotating   
  3. After that It gets  sprinkled on  the  crop  as  if  it  is 
  4. Sprinkler is very useful for lawns, coffee plantation and  several  other  crops


How does the Drip irrigation system system Works?

  1. In this system, the water falls drop by drop directly near the roots. So it is called drip system.
  2. It is the best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees.
  3. In this Method water is not wasted at all.
  4. It is a boon in regions where availability of water is poor.

What is Weed? How can we control them?

In a field many other undesirable plants may grow naturally along with the crop. These undesirable plants are called weeds For example Wild Oat.  We can control Weed by using any of the following three methods:-

  1. Manual method
  2. Chemical method
  3. Biological method



What is weeding? Why the process of weeding is necessary? Name the methods applied for weeding.

The removal of weeds is called weeding. Weeding is necessary since weeds compete with the crop plants for water, nutrients, space and light.

Methods applied for weeding are as follows:

  1. Manual method:   In this system weeds are controlled by hand pulling, digging, shallow tillage, etc., by using certain implements like khurpi, hoe, etc. It is the most time consuming method.
  2. Chemical method: In this method chemicals called, weedicides are used to remove weeds. For example, metachlor and 2, 4-D.
  3. Biological control method: It this method farmers use some specific insects that destroy the growth of some specific weeds. For example, leafy spurge, a weed, is controlled by using flea beetles.


Define Harvesting. How it is done?

The  cutting  of  crop  after  it  is mature  is  called  harvesting. Harvesting is either  done manually     by     sickle or  by  a  machine called  harvester.


What is Threshing?

The method of separating grain seeds From chaff is called threshing. This is done with the help of a machine called ‘combine’ which is in fact a harvester as well as a thresher.

Point to Remember: –  Farmers with small holdings of land do the separation of grain and chaff by winnowing.



What is Storage? Why it is Important?

If the crop grains are to be kept for longer time, they should be safe from moisture, insects, rats and microorganisms. Before storing make sure, the grains are properly dried in the sun to reduce the moisture in them. This prevents the attack by insect pests, bacteria and fungi. Grains are stored by farmers in jute bags or metallic bins. However, large scale storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to protect them from pests like rats and insects.


What is Animal Husbandry?

Animal Husbandry is a branch of agriculture which deals with Feeding, shelter, health and breeding of domestic animals.